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University of Sussex
Brighton, United Kingdom
School of Media, Film and Music and the School of Global Studies
MA Media Practice for Development and Social Change

Background information:

The University of Sussex was the first of the new wave of UK universities founded in the 1960s, receiving its Royal Charter in 1961. The goal of the university is to deliver teaching and learning programmes informed by current research, attractive to students from all socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds, and which deliver skills for life.

This MA course has been running since 2012 with growth in numbers studying it seen each year. It was recognised that media in the developing world were growing rapidly and grassroots initiatives (participatory media, community media) were increasing, so this course fulfilled a need for those who were interested in working in this area.

Overview of Programme/Course: 

Jointly taught between the School of Media, Film and Music and the School of Global Studies, this Masters brings together the practical side of media production (multimedia, documentary, photography, radio and web-based media) with media theory, focusing on international development and social change.  The course focuses on media as tools for global social and political change with a strong emphasis on the role of civil society and (alternative) media organisations. Social media, citizen journalism, activist media, participatory media and specialised broadcast media are successfully used to inform and engage audiences outside established channels of communication for issues such as: social inequality, human rights, gender issues, and environmental change.

Click here to watch an interview with a postgraduate student about her MA in Media Practice for Development and Social Change.

Teaching Process: 

This course can be taken over 1 year full-time or 2 years part-time.
Assessment consists of:

  • a variety of practical media projects (documentary, podcast, web design, photography, multimedia project)
  • critical reflection reports
  • presentations
  • essays
  • the final project (work placement, independent media project or written dissertation).

The final project can be an independent media project shot anywhere in the world, a written dissertation or industry experience (eight weeks with a charity, NGO or media company). Previous experiences have been at institutions such as Oxfam, UNICEF, the United Nations, and WorldGranny.

Courses and Curriculum: 

Core Modules

The Masters offers two core modules which are taken by all students on the course. They offer a solid grounding for chosen subjects and prepare students to explore the topics that interest them most.

  • Critical Perspectives on Development, Media and Social Change - This module explores the intersections of development, media and social change. It begins with an overview of contemporary development challenges, as set against a backdrop of changing trends and understandings of development. It goes on to explore the ways in which media has been used as a tool to bring about social, political and economic change, examining different approaches to and understandings of change - from a conception of development as planned intervention carried out by states and development agencies through policies, projects and programmes to development as organised efforts by groups who have been marginalised from the development process through protest, resistance and mobilisation. The module draws on examples from practice to examine and critically assess the contributions that media - documentary film, digital storytelling, photography, radio and internet based media, including blogging and social networking - can make to development and social change.
  • Producing Media for Development and Social Change - This core module introduces core practical skills in a range of media (digital documentary, radio, podcasting and web design) within a critical context focusing on development and social change. Integrating practice and theory, the module aims to develop insight and knowledge of independent and locally produced media initiatives that facilitate citizen participation and foster social development. After an introduction which sets out the contemporary media landscape and its relationship to an active public sphere, the module will focus on case studies of a variety of media projects - such as community radio, mobile media, and documentary projects in the developing world. The practical component of this module focuses on executing exercises in a variety of media formats which will integrate the acquired skills and insights. This module will include some master classes by NGO representatives and/or media professionals who will present a variety of case studies.

Optional Modules

Alongside the core modules, students can choose options to broaden their horizons and tailor their course to their interests. Students choose ONE option from Global Studies and ONE option from Media, Film and Music.

Options from Global Studies include:

  • Activism for Development and Social Justice
  • Knowledge, Power and Resistance
  • Poverty, Vulnerability and the Global Economy
  • Race, Culture and the Media
  • Sexuality and Development: Intimacies, Health and Rights in Global Perspective
  • Transnationalism, Diaspora and Migrants' Lives

Options from Media, Film and Music include:

  • Activist Media Practice
  • Interactive Project Development
  • Media Audiences
  • New Developments in Digital Media 1a
  • Photography: Documentary, Landscape, Politics
  • Short Documentary: Research and Production

Core project options include:

  • Dissertation (Media Practice, Development and Social Change)
  • Dissertation (Media Practice, Development and Social Change) with Placement
  • Media Project for Development and Social Change
  • Media Project for Development and Social Change with Placement

Note: These are the modules running in the academic year 2017. Modules running in 2018 may be subject to change.

Click here to find more information on the courses (Under Course Details)

Core Teaching Materials: 

The following are examples of core reading materials for this course:

Faculty Publications: 

Click here for publications by Ms Wilma De Jong, Co-convenor MA Media Practice for Development and Social Change and Senior Lecturer in Media & Film Studies..

Click here for publications by Dr Anke Schwittay, Co-convenor MA Media Practice for Development and Social Change and Senior Lecturer in Anthropology & International Development and Head of Department of International Development (School of Global Studies).


Students produce media projects with and within communities or undertake industry experiences with NGOs and charities in the UK and overseas.

Academic Staff: 

Ms Wilma De Jong -  Co-Convenor MA Media Practice for Development and Social Change and Senior Lecturer in Media & Film Studies.  Research interests: Archives and media production, Documentary theory and practice, Film-based media (History, Theory & Practice), Interactive and web based documentaries, Media and international development, media and pressure groups. 

Dr Anke Schwittay - Co-Convenor MA Media Practice for Development and Social Change and Senior Lecturer in Anthropology & International Development and Head of Department of International Development (School of Global Studies). Research interests: digital development, financial inclusion, humanitarian design, microfinance tourism, online microfinance, representations of development.

Click here for a full list of academic staff (Under Our Experts).  Publications by these staff members can be found under their individual profiles. 


University of Sussex website on March 27 2018 and information received from Ian Tout, Communications Officer, School of Media, Film and Music on March 27 2018.

School of Media...
Hillary Murphy
Publication Date
Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition Globally (SPRING) Project

"Effective micronutrient powder distribution programming requires a behavior change strategy that is both effective and appropriate in a specific context."

Drawing on the experience of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition Globally (SPRING) project, this presentation explores the use of social behaviour change communication (SBCC) to support delivery of micronutrient powders (MNP) in rural Uganda. In examines anaemia landscape in Uganda, the SPRING pilot distributing MNP in Namutumba district and associated SBCC, and data collection methods and findings.

Contacts (user reference): 

Email from Hillary Murphy to The Communication Initiative on April 15 2018. Image credit: SPRING

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Kriss Barker
Publication Date
Monday, April 16, 2018

Population Media Center (PMC)

This presentation describes Population Media Center (PMC)'s entertainment-education (EE)-based work in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), specifically related to environmental conservation in eastern Congo. It also shares data on the impact of this work, which included a 156-episode Swahili-language radio serial drama titled Pambazuko ("New Dawn"), which aired from February 2016 to August 2017 (see Related Summaries, below, for details).

Contacts (user reference): 
Kriss Barker - ...

Email from Kriss Barker to The Communication Initiative on April 11 2018.

See video

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Deborah Toppenberg-Pejcic
Jane Noyes
Tomas Allen
Nyka Alexander
Marsha Vanderford
Gaya Gamhewage
Publication Date
Tuesday, March 20, 2018

Consultant to the World Health Organization (WHO) from December 2016 to October 2017 (Toppenberg-Pejcic); Consultant to WHO from 2015 to 2017 (Noyes); Bangor University (Noyes); WHO (Allen, Alexander, Vanderford, Gamhewage)

"...going local plays a central role in effective emergency communication, from engaging with and building on local leadership and organizational structures, to using local staff, communication patterns, networks and languages, to tailoring interventions for local communities."

In December 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) commissioned a rapid review of recent gray literature evidence (2015-2016) to provide underpinning for the development of their Communicating Risk in Public Health Emergencies (see Related Summaries, below). This was intended to provide additional knowledge about building national-level capacity to integrate effective risk communication practices and structures into healthcare and response systems for public health emergencies.

  <div class="field button"><a href="" target="_blank">Click here to read the article online or to download it in PDF format (20 pages).</a></div>
Contacts (user reference): 

Health Communication, DOI: 10.1080/10410236.2017.1405488. Image credit: WHO/A. Bhatiasevi

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University of Westminster
London, United Kingdom
Westminster School of Media, Arts and Design
Masters in Media and Development

Background information:

Overview of Programme/Course: 

The Media and Development MA is an interdisciplinary course that teaches main theories, concepts, case studies and practical media skills around the theme of media and development and its implications for less developed countries. The course seeks to provide students with a unique blend of theory and practice teaching, aimed at deepening their knowledge of the history of communications within the development process of emerging economies. It will critically evaluate the impact of international and regional institutions from a critical political economic perspective. Teaching by academic staff, guest lecturers and other carefully selected staff from development organisations provides students with an overview of the policies, actions and impact of state and non-state institutions within the area of communication media and development.

The  course  structure follows the requirements of the modular frameworks and the academic regulations of the University. The course covers the following:

  • The main ways in which social scientist have analysed the processes of development and the role of the mass media in it, from a variety of critical perspectives. 
  • The key policies, actions and impact of state and non-state institutions within the area of development. 
  • The factors which shape mass communication policies in developing countries.
  • The theoretical and practice issues in media and development.
  • The major debates about media and development.

Click here for more information.

Teaching Process: 

A distinctive feature of this MA is its emphasis on the practical role of communication media in development. Students will participate in media production workshops and take part in the department’s internship programme, offered in partnership with media and development organisations in London. As part of the work experience module, students participate in an extensive NGO and media seminar series featuring experts and panel discussions. The work placement programme is in line with the University of Westminster’s strategy of nurturing critical practitioners.

Courses and Curriculum: 

The course can be completed full-time (one year) or part-time (two years), starting in September.  To complete the Degree, students are required to complete core modules and can choose from a variety of optional modules.

Core modules:

  • Communications Policy and Development - This module will provide students with a theoretical view of the concept of development and with the foundation for analysis of development policies in the communication sector. The course will consider the traditional role of communications in developing countries and analyse the spread of western corporations in telecommunications and mass media into the middle and lower income countries.
  • Dissertation - A taught module and group workshops in the first semester will guide students in conducting a major piece of independent research. This module will be supplemented by individual supervisions beginning from the second semester. The aim is to give students a guided framework within which they can demonstrate their ability to carry out advanced independent study and write it up in the form of a dissertation. The dissertation is a 15,000 word piece of original research on a topic agreed with their supervisor and related to the political, economic, cultural and/or sociological factors which shape the practices and outcomes of mass media, including media texts and the audience reception of them.
  • Theories of Communication - The module is intentionally eclectic. Students will cover (in a loosely historical way) the arguments, advantages and problems of the main sociological, cultural and psychological theories about the media. It aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the most important ways of approaching the fundamental issues posed by the relationships between the media of communication and social and economic life. It will also enable you to understand the problems posed by different intellectual traditions, and to place those theories in their proper contexts.
  • Theories of Development - This module focuses on different theories and approaches to development. It considers key development theories and approaches such as modernisation, dependency and neo- liberalism and will provide students with an opportunity to critically assess their relevance to specific contexts in developing countries.

Option modules for Semester 1:

  • Approaches to Social and Cultural Diversity
  • Global Media      
  • Media Production Skills
  • Political Analysis of Communication
  • Political Economy of Communication
  • Reporting Diversity: Gender, Sexuality, Age, Disability
  • Technology and Communication Policy

Option modules for Semester 2:

  • Approaches to Media and Communication Research
  • Media Business Strategy
  • Media Work Experience
  • Media, Activism & Politics
  • Planning Campaign Communications for NGOs and Charities
  • Policies for Digital Convergence
  • Reporting Diversity: Faith and Religion
  • Reporting Migration, Race and Ethnicity
  • Approaches to Social and Cultural Diversity
  • The Sociology of News

For more detailed information see this Programme Specification document.

Core Teaching Materials: 

The course uses a variety of books, journals, films and online resources to enhance student’s knowledge and skills. These can be provided to potential students on request.

Faculty Publications: 

Click on the staff names below (under Academic Staff) to find examples of faculty publications.


The Communication and Media Research Institute (CAMRI) is home to around 30 researchers and 65 doctoral students. It has been a leading centre of media and communications research in the UK for almost 30 years.  CAMRI’s expertise is focused around media policy and economics, media history, and digital media.

Communication and Development Network (C4D) - The Department also works closely with the C4D Network which is aimed at communication for development practitioners plus allied development workers, donors, academics and communication experts from the BBC, UN and major development organisations. The joining criterion is an engagement in communication for development - either professionally or through academia. Students on the Media and Development MA have the option to join the C4D network and each can do a fellowship/internship with the network during the course.

Academic Staff: 

Click here to to find out more about the course team members (Scroll down to Course Team)

Visiting Lecturers include Jackie Davies, founder and Director of the Communication and Development Network (C4D), a community of professionals working in communication for development (see more information under Projects above).

Dr. Winston Man...

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University of Zambia
Lusaka, Zambia
Department of Media and Communication Studies
Master of Communication for Development (MCD)

Background information:

The Master of Communication for Development (MCD) is a one and half-year Masters degree aimed at training personnel working in various development-related assignments within Zambia, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries, and elsewhere. The need for this training in the region was initially identified by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), and the University of Zambia (and separately, University of Zimbabwe) responded and started the programme.  Although initially inspired by FAO, the development of the MCD study programme and its revisions over the years has endeavoured to address the interests and requirements of different stakeholders within Zambia.  

Overview of Programme/Course: 

The programme goal is to train graduates who will help improve communication for development practices in social, economic, political, and other areas of human endeavour thereby closing the gap thought to be responsible for the lack of progress during the “lost decades” of development in Zambia and other countries. It is hoped that this will make development practices more participatory and sustainable.

By the end of the programme graduates are expected to:
(a) Explain the main theories of communication for development;
(b) Apply the theories to real life situations in order to bring about more sustainable development;
(c) Undertake research in to address communication for development problems;
(d) Undergo attachment in an organisation requiring the use of communication strategies; and
(e) Write a report after the attachment, which critiques and documents the existing practices in the light of theory and best practices from around the world.

Teaching Process: 

The Master of Communication for Development programme takes one and half years to complete. The programme is comprised of a year of course-work, which includes media production, theories, research methods and statistics. The learning and delivery of the courses include a mixture of face-to-face lectures, seminars, and laboratory productions. This is accompanied by a three month practical attachment under the supervision of an academic advisor, plus a three-month period for the MCD report write-up.

Courses and Curriculum: 

In the first year the MA offers the following courses :

  • Communication Research Methods - The course seeks to give the student knowledge, attitudes, and skills in communication research so that they are capable of undertaking various types of pure and applied research work. It also equips them for conducting master’s degree research, and for writing dissertations and reports. 
  • Communication Research Statistics and Qualitative Data Analysis - The course is required for masters students to acquaint themselves with the use and application of statistics and qualitative data analysis methods in research work for dissertations/ theses/ reports and in the world of employment.  It seeks to teach students the main research tools to identify communication problems and constraints and test strategies to solve and overcome them.   
  • Development, Communication of Innovations and Change -  Innovations - new productivity increasing, health-promoting ideas and practices - are the building blocks of expanding people’s choices. This course focuses on change as an inevitable concomitant of enlarging people’s choices, the result of innovations impinging on social norms and individual attitudes and behaviours, and on diffusion of innovations through expanding people’s choices. 
  • Human Communication and Persuasion and Skills - this course is designed to empower postgraduate students in the MCD programme to be able to deliver their messages effectively and efficiently, which will have an impact on people and trigger behaviour change - both in an institution set up, as well as in communities. It includes interpersonal communication, oral and written communication, and listening skills.
  • Communication Policy and Planning in Developing Countries - This course is designed to impart knowledge and skills so that post graduate students are knowledgeable about the essence of communication policy and planning and how to craft it and why different sectors of society, and above all why countries in sub-Saharan countries, should strive to have national communication policies in place. Furthermore, this course is designed to depict a favourable framework within which communication systems and technologies can be developed and utilised in a coordinated, consistent and systematic manner so that it is a vehicle for the socio-economic, cultural and political climate of the society.     
  • Communication Strategies and Community Mobilisation - This course looks at poverty in communities and how communication can be a tool or an instrument to marshal development by mobilising communities through a skilled way of communicating with the grassroots. This course can be consider the anchor of the MCD programme because it is here where students are trained how to develop communication strategies and communication skills needed to mobilise communities which can be utilised as a vehicle for the improvement of the socio-economic, cultural and political climate of the society.
  • Media Production - The aim of the course is to develop knowledge, comprehension, as well as applied skills, in broadcast production and editing of radio and television, as well as in print editing and lay-out using desktop publishing techniques.  This is to ensure that graduates are not only good at theory, but also have some media production expertise before deployment in the field.  
  • Media and Communication Theories - This course is designed to assist students in properly situating the media and journalism practice within the global theoretical debates that have taken place over time. The course introduces a number of theories established in various social science disciplines which try to explain the interlocking relationship between media in society, and how the media and communication processes operate; outlines the sources of those theories; the evolution of the theories; offers a glimpse of the background research that gave birth to the theories; and, how and what they interpreted. The course deepens the students’ theoretical contexts and ensures that students have the skills for interrogating media and communication practices from various angles. Emphasis is on the need for students to properly and adequately use some of these theories in their dissertation research projects.
  • Issues in Development, Communication and Culture - The aim is to develop a thoughtful and reflexive understanding of the evolution of theories and current disputes in communication for social change in mostly, Africa, Latin America and Asia. This course outlines the main communication in social change theories and debates that, over the years, have been voiced in the global bid for meeting the challenges of development. It serves as the overarching framework drawing a link between African development and social change through different media of interpersonal and mass communication. The course indigenises theory and development paradigms in terms of local contexts, culture, and knowledge. Media and communication students need to acquire skills that would enable them to apply theoretical constructs that relate to their local realities to research projects.

Following the first year, the MA requires:

  • An Attachment and Report Writing - The main benefit of the course is that it affords students a hands-on experience in the practical application of communication for development work, under the supervision of practitioners. The period also affords students a chance to undertake research related to their attachment in order to reinforce understanding of their chosen subject. 
Core Teaching Materials: 

The following are some examples of required reading for the courses outlined above:

  • Gerianne Merrigan, Carole L. Huston and Russell Johnston Communication Research Methods, Oxford University Press, 2012
  • Wimmer, Roger and Dominick, Joseph.  Mass Media Research. Belmont: Wadsworth,
  • Trochim, William, What is the Research Methods Knowledge Base? 2006-2017, Accessed 01.01.2017
  • Berger, Arthur Asa   Media Research, Techniques.  London: Sage, 2011
  • Wimmer, Roger and Dominick, Joseph, Mass Media Research. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2013
  • Servaes J. (Ed) (2009): Communication for Development and Social Change. Sage Publications, Los Angeles.
  • Rogers E. M. (2003) Diffusion of Innovations. The Free Press, New York.
  • Valbuena, Victor (ed.) (1991) Modules in Public Education and Social marketing. Singapore: Asian Mass Communication Institute,
  • Kotler, Philip and Roberto, Edwado L. (1996).  Social marketing. Strategies for Changing Public Behaviour.  New York: Free Press,
  • Battista, A. Orlando, 1993, The power to influence people, Better yourself books, Bombay.
  • Carnegie, Dale, 2010, How to win friends and influence people, New York, Ebury publishing.
  • Cook, Scott, 2012, Speech writing and public speaking, Sage, New Delhi.
  • Engleberg, N. Isa and Wynn, R. Dianna, 2011, Think communication, Allyn & Bacon, London. 
  • Mohanty, K. P, Sharma, S. Mantha and Sivaramakrishna, M, 2006, Handbook on Communication skills, Centre for good governance, New Delhi.
  • Kasoma, Francis P., 1990, Communication Policies in Zambia, University of Tampere, Tampere.
  • Hancock, Alan, 1992, Communication Planning revisited, Unesco, Paris.
  • Phiri, Isaac, 2010, Groping for a new national communication policy in Zambia, in African Communication Research:  National Communication Policy in Africa: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2010), pp. 185 – 204.
  • Mefalopulos, Paolo, 2008, Development communication sourcebook: broadening the boundaries of communication, Washington DC, The World Bank.
  • Mefalopulos, Paolo & Kamlongera, Chris, 2004, Participatory communication strategy design, FAO, Rome.
  •  Melkote, R. Srinivas & Steeves, L. Leslie, 2001, Communication for development in the third world. Theory and practice for empowerment, sage, New Delhi.
  • Covey, R. Stephen, 1999, The seven habits of highly effective people, Pocket books, Sydney.
  • D’Souza, Anthony, 2003, Leadership: A trilogy on leadership and effective management, Pauline publications Africa, Nairobi.
  • Ngambi, C. Hellicy, 2011, Rare total leadership: leading with the head, heart and hands, Juta, Claremont.
  • Anderson, R. & Strate, L. 2006. [Eds]. Critical studies in media commercialism.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Baran, SJ, & Davis, DK. 2006. Mass communication theory: foundations, ferment, and future. Belmont, CA: Thomson.
  • Boyd-Barrett, O. & Rantanen, T. 1998. [Ed] The globalisation of news. London: Sage. 
  • Boyd-Barrett, O, & Newbold, C. 1995. Approaches to media – A Reader. London:  Arnold
  • Calcutt, A, & Hammond, P. 2011. Journalism studies: a critical introduction. London: Routledge.
  • Tufte, T. 2017. Communication and social change: a citizen perspective. New York: Wiley.
  • Gumucio-Dagron, A. &T. Tufte (Eds). 2006. Communication for Social Change. South Change, NJ: Communication for Social Change Consortium
  • Mefalopulos, P. 2008. Development communication sourcebook – broadening the boundaries of communication. New York: IBRD/Word Bank
  • Wilkins, KG. 2000. Redeveloping communication for social change. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield
  • Melkote, SR & Steeves, HL. 2001. Communication for development in the third world: theory and practice for empowerment.  New Delhi: Sage
Academic Staff: 

Mr Kenny Makungu, Head, Media and Communications Department and Senior Lecturer
Mr Fidelis Muzyamba, Lecturer
Dr Elijah M.Bwalya, Lecturer
Dr Sam Phiri, Lecturer
Dr Basil Hamusokwe, Lecturer
Col Emmanuel Kunda, Lecturer
Sr Rose Nyondo, Lecturer
Mrs Elizabeth Chanda, Lecturer
Mr Gerald Mwale, Lecturer
Mrs Francisco Chibbonta-Phiri, Lecturer
Ms Juliet Tembo, Lecturer
Mr Elastus Mambwe, Lecturer
Mr Youngson  Ndawana, Lecturer
Mr MacPherson Mutale, Lecturer
Mr Masuzyo Nyasulu, Lecturer
Mr Mathews Mulenga, Lecturer
Mr Jack Kabangu, Lecturer


University of Zambia website and information received from Kenny Makungu on March 27 2018. 

Hillary Murphy
Publication Date
Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition Globally (SPRING) Project

"Effective micronutrient powder distribution programming requires a behavior change strategy that is both effective and appropriate in a specific context."

Drawing on the experience of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition Globally (SPRING) project, this presentation explores the use of social behaviour change communication (SBCC) to support delivery of micronutrient powders (MNP) in rural Uganda. In examines anaemia landscape in Uganda, the SPRING pilot distributing MNP in Namutumba district and associated SBCC, and data collection methods and findings.

Contacts (user reference): 

Email from Hillary Murphy to The Communication Initiative on April 15 2018. Image credit: SPRING

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Wednesday, November 1, 2017

"The community video approach proved effective in improving and sustaining knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and self-reported behaviors in Niger."

Niger, located in the Sahel region of West Africa, is characterised by harsh climate conditions that contribute to structural food crises and high rates of severe acute malnutrition among children. Many of the underlying determinants of malnutrition are influenced by cultural norms and practices, including polygamy, an emphasis on male decision-making, and low levels of literacy.


To measure the sustained effect of the community video activities, an endline study was conducted:

  • Sample: Approximately 300 women exposed to the intervention who had children ages 6 -23 months at the time of the intervention
  • Study design: Pre-post intervention household survey
  • Study period: Respondents interviewed in April 2015, June 2015, August 2015, and May 2017
  • Analysis: Bivariate analysis

The household surveys collected information on knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behaviours related to handwashing and responsive feeding. Indicators assessing behaviours were self-reported.


  • Indicator 1: Percentage of households with at least one place designated to wash hands (observed by interviewer)
  • Indicator 2: Percentage of households with handwashing station with soap and water (observed by interviewer)
  • Indicator 3: Percentage of handwashing stations maintained by the husband
  • Indicator 4: Percentage of households with handwashing station near the latrine or kitchen (observed by interviewer)

Responsive Feeding

  • Indicator 5: Percentage of women who fed their child with a separate plate at each meal
  • Indicator 6: Percentage of women who actively encouraged their child to eat
  • Indicator 7: Percentage of women who said their child was helped by responsible person at the last meal
  • Indicator 8: Percentage of women who said that the person responsible for helping their child was less than an arm's length away
Knowledge Shifts: 

There was a decrease from the endline survey and follow-up survey in knowledge about the importance of having a handwashing station: from 94.4% (n=301) at baseline to 97.2% (n=356) in August 2015 to 87.2% (n=297) in May 2017.

After the intervention ended, there was a slight decline in the percentage of women who demonstrated soap and clean water use while handwashing: from 78.6% at baseline to 95.7% in August 2015 to 90.5% in May 2017. There was a slight decline over time in knowledge about the need for a child to have a separate plate.

The percentage of women who know they should encourage their child to eat increased from 46.5% at baseline to 84.8% in May 2017.


Women who said they could install a handwashing station increased and then declined 2 years after the intervention. However, a much higher percentage of households had handwashing stations after the intervention: from 14% at baseline to 47.2% in May 2017.

The percentage of women who had soap and clean water at a handwashing station was not sustained over time following the intervention: from 73.8% at baseline up to 96.2% in August 2015 to 46.8% in May 2017.

There was an increase in the percentage of husbands who were responsible for maintaining the handwashing station following exposure to the intervention in August 2015. However, by May 2017, 86.5% of women reported that they were the primary person responsible for maintaining the handwashing station in the household - a ratio similar to baseline.

At baseline, 37% had a handwashing station near the kitchen, nearly 20% had such stations next to the latrine, and fewer than 5% had them next to the compound. After the intervention, there were increases in the number of handwashing stations across all locations. However, these increases declined 2 years following the intervention except for those next to latrines. Placement of handwashing stations near latrines increased from approximately 20% at baseline to 44% following the intervention and remained at the same level 2 years after the community videos were shared.

The percentage of women who said they could provide their child a separate plate increased from 71.8% at baseline to 91.3% two years following the intervention (May 2017). In addition, although the percentage of women who had a separate plate for their child declined 2 years after the intervention (88%), it was still higher than prior to initiating the community video approach (69.8%).

The percentage of women who intend to provide encouragement for their child the next time he or she eats increased from 76.4% at baseline to 96.7% two years after the intervention. While the percentage of women who actually carried out that practice declined from 85.1% two months after the intervention to 76.2% two years later, this is still much higher than at baseline (31.2%).

At baseline, approximately two-thirds of women said a responsible person was an arm's length away from their child at the last meal. This increased to nearly 80% two months following the intervention and to approximately 98% two years following the intervention.

At baseline, approximately 88% of women said a responsible person helped their child at their last meal. This increased to nearly 93% two months following the intervention and to 98% two years following the intervention.


There was a slight and sustained increase over time in the percentage of women who agreed that everyone should have a handwashing station: from 86.7% at baseline to 90.7% in August 2015 to 92.9% in May 2017.

There was a sustained increase over time in the percentage of women who agreed that everyone should wash with soap and clean water (from 92% at baseline to 98.7% in May 2017) and who said they could use soap and water following the intervention.

There was a slight decline in the percentage of women who agree that a child should have a separate plate.

Increased Discussion of Development Issues: 

At baseline, less than 10% of respondents shared information with co-wives, husbands, friends, and neighbours. Two months following exposure to the intervention, sharing messages with co-wives, husbands, and neighbours had doubled, while sharing messages with friends had tripled. Two years after the intervention, women were still sharing messages about handwashing with co-wives, husbands, and friends, ranging from roughly 50% among friends to 75% with neighbours.

At baseline, less than 15% of the women had held conversations on responsive feeding with co-wives, husbands, friends, and neighbours. Two months following the intervention, information sharing increased significantly; these increases were even more significant 2 years after the intervention. For example, sharing with a neighbour increased from 12.3% at baseline to 43% two months after the intervention and 79% two years later.

Contacts (user reference): 

Dougherty, Leanne, Marjolein Moreaux, Chaibou Dadi, and Sophie Minault. 2017. Seeing Is Believing: Evidence from a Community Video Approach for Nutrition and Hygiene Behaviors. Endline Evaluation. [PDF] Arlington, VA: Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition Globally (SPRING) project - accessed on March 26 2018.

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Esther Spindler
Publication Date
Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Institute for Reproductive Health (IRH) at Georgetown University

Emorikinos Daadang Etogogongo Alatanakin Ngidwe (EDEAN) (Let's Come Together and Strengthen Child Spacing) is a community-based intervention in Uganda that is designed to test the hypothesis that increasing fertility awareness (FA) through community theatre can improve family planning (FP) use. (See Related Summaries, below). It forms part of the Fertility Awareness for Community Transformation (FACT) Project, a 5-year (2013 - 2018) research intervention and technical assistance project being implemented by the Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University, and Save the Children, with funding by United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

Contacts (user reference): 

Email from Esther Spindler to The Communication Initiative on April 17 2018.

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Soul Beat Africa: Democracy and Governance Network